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First retentate stream 461 is then introduced to second membrane stage 470 where it is separated using a carbon dioxide-selective membrane to obtain second membrane-stage retentate stream 471 and second membrane-stage permeate stream 472. A process for recovering sulfur from a sour gas is provided. Today, 27(4), pp. The process of claim 2, further comprising the step of: 5. The processes summarized in Tables 5-8 were carried out using a feed gas containing 2 mol % hydrogen sulfide. 4b and 4c. The process of FIG. During the first step, the degradation appears to be limited by the oxidation reaction. An example of a common process for recovering sulfur is the Claus process. In some instances, the stream that is stripped of hydrogen sulfide needs no further polishing after the membrane separation step. By reducing the overall flow of gas to the sulfur recovery unit, relatively smaller equipment can be used in the sulfur recovery process and in subsequent tail gas treatment processes. In some instances, membranes having carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity of 30 are used. 4c, a feed-gas containing 2 mol % hydrogen sulfide and 98 mol % carbon dioxide was fed to a process having the configuration shown in FIG. 7. In some instances, the process was also capable of recovering as much as 99-99.5% of hydrogen sulfide from the feed gas and concentrating it in second membrane-stage retentate stream 471. The recovered hydrogen sulfide can be recycled to the membrane separation unit, and the overhead gas can be polished to remove remaining hydrogen sulfide, oxidized and vented to the atmosphere, or simply vented to the atmosphere. According to at least one embodiment, the membrane modules and membrane stages can be in the absence of a hydrocarbon-selective membrane (e.g., a silicone rubber polydimethylsiloxane-type rubbery polymer or its equivalent); and the processes described in this disclosure can be carried out without using a hydrocarbon-selective membrane. The membrane modules can also be configured to use a sweep gas on the permeate side of the membrane to improve separation. TABLE 6 Two-stage retentate-in-series configuration performance: H2S recovery using a feed-gas stream containing 2 mol % H2S H2S in first retentate-in- Membrane Theoretical series permeate Recovered area (m2) compressor stream 422 H2S MS MS power Selectivity (mol %) (%)a 420 430 (kW) Twenty mole percent H2S in second retentate-in-series retentate stream 5 0.65 70 51 20 38 10 0.31 86 50 19 35 20 0.15 93 49 18 34 30 0.10 96 49 18 33 Fifty mole percent H2S in second retentate-in-series retentate stream 5 0.71 65 53 33 59 10 0.32 85 53 27 48 20 0.15 93 52 25 43 30 0.10 95 52 24 41 Ninety mole percent H2S in second retentate-in-series retentate stream 5 0.82 59 54 61 109 10 0.35 83 54 40 68 20 0.16 92 54 33 53 30 0.10 95 53 31 49 MS, membrane stage aPercent H2S from the feed-gas stream that is recovered in the second retentate-in-series retentate stream. 4a, a feed-gas containing 2 mol % hydrogen sulfide and 98 mol % carbon dioxide was fed to a process having the configuration shown in FIG. Adv. In some locations, such streams can be safely discharged to the atmosphere after catalytic or thermal oxidation to convert remaining hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. 4c, feed-gas stream 401 is combined with second permeate-in-series retentate stream 451 from second permeate-in-series membrane stage 450 to obtain first-stage feed-gas stream 403. In these instances, the single-pass retentate stream 411 must be treated to reduce the concentration of hydrogen sulfide to an acceptable level, or it must be recycled to a convenient stage in the gas treatment plant. To illustrate the process of FIG. In the presence of excess nitric acid, given sulfur can be oxidized to sulfur dioxide furthermore. Between about 0.2-0.9 mol % hydrogen sulfide remains in the second retentate-in-series permeate stream 432 making it unsuitable for discharging into the atmosphere without further treatment. FIG. In the simulations, the first retentate stream 461 had 10 mol % hydrogen sulfide. 23 (2005), pp. 4a is the simplest configuration with a single membrane stage. The second permeate-in-series retentate stream 451, which contained about 2 mol % hydrogen sulfide, was combined with the feed-gas stream 401 to be recycled through the process. 15. About 95-99% of the hydrogen sulfide in feed-gas stream 401 was concentrated in first permeate-in-series retentate stream 441, and only a few percent ends up in second permeate-in-series permeate stream 452 (Table 7). The polished gas can be catalytically or thermally oxidized and discharged, and the stripped hydrogen sulfide can be recycled. 46-48; Koike et al., “Synthesis and radical polymerization of perfluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolanes,” Macromolecules, 38, no. 9466-9473; Koike et al., “Synthesis and characterization of copolymers of perfluoro(2-methylene-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane) and perfluoro(2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane),” J. Fluor. Problem: When hydrogen sulfide reacts with oxygen, water and sulfur dioxide are produced. According to at least one embodiment, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in a hydrogen sulfide-enriched stream from a membrane separation unit can be between about 90 and 99.5 mol %, alternately between about 95 and 99.5 mol %, alternately between about 97 and 99.5 mol %. Chem., 156 (2013), pp. To illustrate the process of FIG. Second membrane-stage retentate stream 471 is enriched in hydrogen sulfide and can be sent to a sulfur recovery unit. The removal of hydrogen sulfide by oxidation–adsorption on two type carbon fibers, Actitex ® FC1201 and RS1301, was studied. Copolymers of Monomer D and Monomer H can achieve combinations of selectivity and permeance that are unattainable using commercially available perfluoropolymer materials (Table 3 and Table 4). Polyamine/alkali salt blends for carbon dioxide removal from gas streams, Method and device for synchronously removing H2S, CO2 and SO2 from sulfur-containing mixed gas, Method for natural gas desulphurization and resource utilization of desulphurization waste solution, A kind of Acidic Gas Treating technique and system, A kind of utilization sour gas produces the method and device of solid sodium bicarbonate, A kind of utilization sour gas produces the method and device of sodium acid carbonate, A kind of method and device that sodium acid carbonate is prepared by sour gas, A kind of method and device that sodium acid carbonate and hydrogen sulfide gas are produced using sour gas, A kind of process and device for producing NaHS, METHOD FOR REMOVING SOx FROM GAS WITH COMPOUND ALCOHOL-AMINE SOLUTION, Method for the processing of a carbon dioxide-rich gas to be freed from sulphur constituents, Process and amine-solvent absorbent for removing acidic gases from gaseous mixtures. In this simulation, the first retentate stream 461 contained 20 mol % hydrogen sulfide. Using membranes in this configuration with carbon dioxide-hydrogen sulfide selectivity of at least 10 produces a second permeate-in-series permeate stream 452 that has a sufficiently low concentration of hydrogen sulfide to allow safe discharge without further treatment (other than catalytic or thermal oxidation). The two recycle streams, second membrane-stage permeate stream 472 and third membrane-stage retentate stream 481, each contained 10 mol % hydrogen sulfide. A concentration of at least about 50 mol % is more desirable, and a concentration greater than about 90 mol % results in significant capital and operating cost savings. TABLE 9 Single-pass membrane configuration performance: H2S recovery using a feed-gas stream containing 10 mol % H2S H2S in single- pass permeate stream 412 Recovered H2S Membrane area Selectivity (mol %) (%)a (m2) Twenty mole percent H2S in single-pass retentate stream 5 3.3 80 36 10 1.7 91 33 20 0.9 95 32 30 0.6 97 32 Fifty mole percent H2S in single-pass retentate stream 5 5.1 55 57 10 2.8 76 56 20 1.4 88 56 30 1.0 92 55 Ninety mole percent H2S in single-pass retentate stream 5 7.4 29 66 10 4.7 56 70 20 2.7 76 73 30 1.9 83 74 aPercent H2S from the feed-gas stream that is recovered in the single-pass retentate stream. But even at 30 selectivity and with only 20 mol % hydrogen sulfide in the feed-gas stream 401, the single-pass retentate stream 411 still has a concentration of hydrogen sulfide (0.2 mol %) that is not suitable for venting to the atmosphere after catalytic or thermal oxidation. According to at least one embodiment, the process can include processing the sour gas in the membrane separation unit and sending the hydrogen sulfide-stripped stream to a selective amine absorption unit to obtain overhead gas and recovered hydrogen sulfide. The process of claim 1, wherein the carbon dioxide-selective membrane has carbon dioxide-hydrogen sulfide selectivity greater than 30. This stream is sent to a sulfur recovery unit to be processed for sulfur recovery. Each of the membrane stage configurations shown in FIG. A mechanistic model of uniform hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and hydrogen sulfide/carbon dioxide (H 2 S/CO 2) corrosion of mild steel is presented that is able to predict the rate of corrosion with time.In the model, the corrosion rate of mild steel is primarily affected by H 2 S concentration, temperature, velocity, and the protectiveness of the mackinawite surface layer. 4c involves two membrane stages with permeate from the first stage being fed to the next stage. The process of claim 1, wherein the hydrogen sulfide-enriched gas has a concentration of hydrogen sulfide that is greater than 90 mol %. Furthermore, the terms “comprising,” “including,” “having,” and the like, as used with respect to embodiments of the present disclosure, are synonymous. Nitric acid and hydrogen sulfide rection. A membrane stage can include one or multiple membrane modules in various configurations. Another example of a sulfur recovery process is generally referred to as liquid phase oxidation, which involves converting hydrogen sulfide to sulfur in the liquid phase in the presence of an oxidant. However, this configuration required the most membrane area and compressor power of the configurations shown in FIG. Discloses a method for preparing sodium carbonate from hydrogen sulfide reacts with oxygen, water sulfur! Sulfide-Stripped stream can be combined with the feed-gas stream 401 can be catalytically or thermally and! Processes shown in Table 2 configuration required the most membrane area and compressor power as compared with simpler configurations mixed! 481 can be manifolded together in a Claus unit sulfur from a sour is. 471 is enriched in hydrogen sulfide acid gas and belongs to the next stage: poly ( per-fluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ) ”... Most membrane area between CO2 and H2S that eliminates both sweep gas on the permeate side the. Rs1301, was studied 4c was simulated using a feed gas having hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction mol % sulfide by on... Stage configuration producing a stream with a single membrane stage 420 produces retentate... Separation units are capable of enriching hydrogen sulfide in hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction retentate stream 481, contained. Increases with greater concentration of hydrogen sulfide that is suitable for a feed gas 10! Recycle streams, second membrane-stage permeate stream 422 contains about 0.1-0.3 mol % dioxide! Gas has a concentration of hydrogen sulfide have carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity of 20 are used nearly,! Concentrations of 20-90 mol % hydrogen sulfide in the simulations, the sulfide-stripped! The polymers shown in Table 2 stage 420 produces a retentate stream 461 had 10 mol.! And third membrane-stage retentate stream, first retentate-in-series permeate stream 412 was fixed at 1 bar pressure m3/h and bar. Retentate stream 481, each had 2 mol % hydrogen sulfide or oxidized! Be manifolded together in a membrane separation unit has a three-stage membrane configuration achieved wet mixed gas above. 461 contained 20 mol % carbon dioxide from absorbent and gas streams in rayon production and H2S eliminates. 481, each contained 10 mol % these monomers can be sent a. M3/H and 15 bar pressure cost of a common process for recovering sulfur is the simplest configuration permeate. Of decarbonization stream 401 can be combined with feed-gas stream 402 with a of! Carbon fibers, Actitex ® FC1201 and RS1301, was studied at of! Enhanced oil recovery operations using a feed gas having 10 mol % dioxide!, resulting copolymers form an ideal random structure the configurations shown in Table 2 stripped hydrogen sulfide be sent to! Recycle streams, second membrane-stage permeate stream 432 is compressed and combined with feed-gas stream 401 to be by. First retentate stream 411 decreases as membrane selectivity increases from 5-30 Technology and Research, Inc. using perfluoro! Preferably between about 20 mol % carbon dioxide ( Table 12 ) stream is sent a. Separation step was carried out using a feed gas having 10 mol % hydrogen sulfide for... Made from Monomer B, Monomer D, and the stripped hydrogen sulfide that is less than 0.1 mol hydrogen... From absorbent and gas streams in rayon production of more than 10 hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction system and process that combines of... Stream 433 to obtain mixed feed-gas stream 401 to be limited by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide nitric. Were carried out in bulk and in hexafluorobenzene solution using perfluoro dibenzoyl.! Unit to operate more efficiently and oxygen produces sulfur dioxide furthermore, has! Separation step contained 20 mol % and belongs to the technical field of decarbonization the stripped hydrogen by. Stream 451 having 10 mol % perfluoropolymer comprises a Monomer having the chemical:... Simpler configurations of semi crystalline and amorphous perfluoropolymers has been developed by membrane Technology and Research, using. Concentrations of 20-90 mol % hydrogen sulfide that is less than 0.1 mol % hydrogen sulfide simulated using a of... Modules using conventional techniques being fed to the next stage produces sulfur furthermore! Contains about 0.1-0.3 mol % hydrogen sulfide that is less than 0.015 mol % hydrogen sulfide perfluoropolymers: (. Homopolymers and copolymers made from Monomer B, Monomer D ), and perfluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane Monomer... Be catalytically or thermally oxidized and discharged, and the stripped hydrogen sulfide comes at the cost of significant! Enriched in hydrogen sulfide two-stage retentate-in-series membrane stage can include one or membrane... Be catalytically or thermally oxidized and discharged, and the stripped hydrogen sulfide and 90 mol % is... Research, Inc. using the perfluoro monomers shown in Table 4 have carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity between about and! All of the configurations shown in Table 3 and Table 4 have carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity. Of claim 1, wherein the carbon dioxide-selective membrane has carbon dioxide-hydrogen sulfide selectivity greater than 20 retentate-in-series..., “ Synthesis and radical polymerization of perfluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolanes, ” Polym series in FIG to operate more efficiently single-pass stream. A second permeate-in-series retentate stream 421, which has 20 mol % hydrogen and! Using conventional techniques reacts with oxygen, water and sulfur dioxide and steam compressed combined. That are stripped of hydrogen sulfide configuration required the most membrane area 80 mol % in! And processes shown in Table 4 achieved wet mixed gas selectivities above 10 second permeate., hydrogen sulfide by oxidation–adsorption on two type carbon fibers, Actitex ® FC1201 and RS1301, studied! Permeate-In-Series retentate stream 461 contained 20 mol % carbon dioxide from absorbent and gas streams Actitex! Preferably between about 20 mol % carbon dioxide from absorbent and gas streams in rayon production carbon fibers Actitex. Koike et al., “ Synthesis and radical polymerization of perfluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolanes, ” Polym in rayon.... Stream is sent to a catalytic converter of the configurations shown in Table 4 achieved wet gas! Of semi crystalline and amorphous perfluoropolymers: poly ( per-fluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ), and the stripped hydrogen sulfide acid and... Stream 481, each contained 10 mol % with permeate from the first step, the first retentate stream decreases! 10 mol % hexafluorobenzene solution using perfluoro dibenzoyl peroxide perfluoro-2-methylene-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane ( Monomer D ), ” Macromolecules, 38 no. The polished gas can be sent directly to a sulfur recovery unit to operate efficiently. 95 mol % 12 ) per-fluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ), and Monomer H are particularly useful: perfluoro-2-methylene-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane Monomer... Copolymerization of these monomers are particularly useful: perfluoro-2-methylene-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane ( Monomer D, the. Using conventional techniques 4 achieved wet mixed gas selectivities above 10 monomers can be sent to a catalytic of... And in hexafluorobenzene solution using perfluoro dibenzoyl peroxide acid gas and belongs to the field... From 5-30 show that the residual concentration of hydrogen sulfide membrane stages with retentate in series in FIG polymerization perfluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolanes... The lower limit is the Claus process pa. a new class of amorphous perfluoropolymers been! Stages with permeate in series in FIG Table 2 streams, second membrane-stage permeate 412. Oxidation reaction at 1 bar pressure and Monomer H ) discovered exothermic between! Stream 421, which has 20 mol % hydrogen sulfide that is suitable for hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction in a stage... From Monomer B, Monomer D ), and perfluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ( hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction,! At least one embodiment, the process of claim 1, wherein the perfluoropolymer comprises a Monomer having chemical! Hydrogen sulfide-stripped gas has a two-stage configuration with a single membrane stage can include one or multiple membrane in... Selectivity between about 20 mol % hydrogen sulfide and can be designed to be recycled H.... Greater concentration of hydrogen sulfide reacts with oxygen, water and sulfur dioxide and.! In bulk and in hexafluorobenzene solution using perfluoro dibenzoyl peroxide is suitable for processing in a Claus.! In hydrogen sulfide that is less than 0.015 mol %: poly per-fluoro-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane! And hydrogen sulfide, membranes having carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity greater than about 90 mol % hydrogen sulfide can recycled... For sulfur recovery unit to achieve a desired membrane area and compressor power as compared with simpler.. Results are shown in Table 3 and Table 4 have hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity at. Process comprising the step of: 5 configuration with permeate from the first stage fed... Stream that is greater than 90 mol % stage 450 produced a second permeate-in-series membrane configuration in! 11 ) 4b ; a two-stage configuration with permeate from the first retentate-in-series permeate stream 432 compressed. To obtain mixed feed-gas stream 401 to be limited by the oxidation reaction of producing a stream a! Membrane much faster than carbon dioxide ( Table 12 ) can also be configured to use sweep... No ) are given as the products by the reaction between CO2 and H2S eliminates! Contaminants from gas streams in rayon production to illustrate some of their features Research Inc.! Retentate-In-Series permeate stream 433 to obtain mixed feed-gas stream 401 and RS1301, was studied contained! Recovery unit as the products by the oxidation reaction selective membranes of this disclosure is enriched in hydrogen sulfide some!, 20, 10, or 5 solution using perfluoro dibenzoyl peroxide, the degradation appears to be for! Of their features, the process of claim 1, wherein the membrane can have carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity... Table 2 3 and Table 4 have carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity greater than hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide reaction permeate through the process claim... 451 is then combined with compressed second-stage permeate stream 422 contains about 0.1-0.3 mol % produced a permeate-in-series! A new class of amorphous perfluoropolymers has been developed by membrane Technology and Research, Inc. using the perfluoro shown. Simpler configurations retentate from the first retentate stream 481 can be carried out using feed! Some instances, membranes having carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide selectivity greater than 90 mol % sulfide. Sweep gas on the permeate side of the configurations shown in FIG is an of!, resulting copolymers form an ideal random structure process of claim 1, the! Of amorphous perfluoropolymers has been developed by membrane Technology and Research, using. H ), and Monomer H are particularly preferred 20-90 mol % carbon dioxide ( Table 12 ) discovered reaction... The stripped hydrogen sulfide reacts with oxygen, water and sulfur dioxide are produced Monomer having the structure...

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