He studied medicine at St. John's College, Cambridge, graduating in 1573. This book, written in Latin, dealt with what was known about magnetic phenomena as well as his extensive research. ." Since the deviation from the meridian was constant at a given point, Gilbert thought that if the seamen would record these variations at many points, an accurate table of variation for various positions could be compiled and the problem would be solved. ." He was also the first person to explain how a magnetic compass works and he coined the term electricity. Gilbert received some property owned by his sister and became a potential co-guardian to Joseph's two young sons, together with the Schwencks. The sun was designated as the center for the orbits of the five wandering stars and was the cause of motion for all the globes within its orb of virtue. Gilbert thought that the variations from the horizontal could be obtained by means of experimentation with the terrella, since the dip depended on the position of the needle between the equator and the pole rather than on the configuration of the surface of the magnet. ." William Gilbert (20 May 1804 – 3 January 1890) was an English writer and Royal Navy surgeon. "William Gilbert – William Gilbert, De Magnete, English translation by Silvanus Phillips Thompson, 1900. ." By the mid-1570s, he was practicing medicine in London, where he became a member of the Royal College of Physicians (and was elected president of the group in 1600). William Gilbert And Magnetism IELTS Reading Answers. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Three years earlier he had published a book called De Magnete, which was nothing less than the first ever work of experimental physics.Its fuller title, translated from the original Latin, was On the Magnet, Magnetic Bodies and that Great Magnet the Earth.In 1651 a collection of Gilbert’s … William Gilbert. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. This was a small, metallic needle so balanced that it easily turned about a vertical axis. An essay entitled "William Gilbert (1804–1890) of Bishopstoke" by a local historian can be viewed at Hampshire County Council, North Walls, Winchester Library, Eastleigh Museum and Eastleigh Library, which lists all of Gilbert's known works. Gilbert dismissed the third motion described in the De revolutionibus as “no motion.” This treatment of the motions of the earth is only one of the many indications that the De mundo was left in a fragmentary state. W. S. Gilbert apparently never contacted his mother again. On Gilbert or his work, see Suzanne Kelly, The De mundo of William Gilbert (Amsterdam, 1965); and Duane H. D. Roller, The De magnete of William Gilbert (Amsterdam, 1959). The small needle placed on the terrella maintained a horizontal position only when placed on the equator. He is best remembered, however, as the father of dramatist W. S. Gilbert of Gilbert and Sullivan. He entered St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1558 and obtained an B.A. She was the daughter of Thomas Morris (1760–1849), an apothecary, and Christiana nee Sutherland (1777–1845). Gilbert was more negative than positive in his assertions about the form which accounts for the magnetic property. While in London, Gilbert was active in the Royal College and held several offices in that organization. Read the passage below and answer questions 1 – 13. Encyclopedia.com. Pumfrey, Stephen. 1959). This was made into a play called Mary Warner by Tom Taylor in 1869, who was forced to pay Gilbert a settlement for plagiarising his novel. Like the clouds, winds were part of the effluvia of the earth. Several theories and mythological explanations for the Milky Way were reviewed and denied by Gilbert; then the hypothesis that the Milky Way is a collection of stars so numerous and so far from the earth as to appear to be a mist or cloud was given but was neither accepted nor denied. Jerome, who had some knowledge of law, moved from Clare to Colchester in the 1520’s became a free burgess and recorder there, and married Elizabeth coggeshall. He went on to study for an M.A. It was not lost on Gilbert or his contemporaries that discoveries about magnetism would be politically and commercially useful. , Gilbert and Anne "led an increasingly quarrelsome life" in London. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-gilbert, "William Gilbert Throughout the De magnete, Gilbert discussed and usually dismissed previous theories concerning magnetic phenomena and offered observational data and experiments which would support his own theories. William Gilbert was the first to show the difference between magnetic and static electricity. At this time, he received his an annuity from his father's estate, giving him financial independence, and also published a volume of his poetry. Nothing is known of Gilbert's life for the next eight years. The causes for the differences were not stated. The Gilberts then moved to Hammersmith, near Anne's sister Harriet and her family. In discussing the variations from the meridian and the horizontal, Gilbert suggested practical applications of his theory. in 1569. He then spent several years in Italy, returning to England about 1825. Unlike the electrics, magnetics did not depend on the emission of effluvia to draw bodies to themselves. Although the earth was located within this orb, Gilbert excluded it from those bodies affected by the sun. Throughout the book Gilbert marked his own discoveries and experiments with asterisks; larger symbols were used for the more important discoveries and experiments, smaller asterisks for the less important ones. Specific ideas published in the De magnete that influenced later scientists were: (1) The possibility of conducting magnetic experiments in the laboratory and thereby learning about "the great lodestone, the Earth."  Both his parents died of tuberculosis by the time William was seven years old, and thereafter, he and his younger siblings, Joseph and Jane, were raised in London by their mother's sister and her husband, Mary nee Mathers (1770–1865) and John Samuel Schwenck (1780–1861), a childless and financially comfortable couple. (b Colchester, Essex, England, 1544; d. London, England, 30 November 1603). New Catholic Encyclopedia. William Gilbert was born in Colchester, Suffolk, on May 24, 1544. Through his experiments on magnets and magnetic bodies (especially the lodestone, that is, naturally magnetized iron ore), Gilbert methodically investigated a wide range of magnetic behaviors. Magnetic materials were those substances which shared in the specific, primary form of the earth. In early 1845, Gilbert decided to take custody of his two young nephews from their mother, Catherine, who had begun a relationship with an officer of the East India Company. Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) and Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) pondered Gilbert's magnetic forces before devising their own physical explanations of astronomical motions. See also Astronomy ; Bacon, Francis ; Copernicus, Nicolaus ; Exploration ; Galileo Galilei ; Kepler, Johannes ; Newton, Isaac ; Shipbuilding and Navigation. (2) The suggestions that weight is due to the magnetic attraction of the earth, that the strength of a magnet is proportional to its mole (mass), and that the earth exerts a magnetic force on the moon. Despite the widespread use of nautical compasses on Spanish, English, Dutch, and French ships, none of his contemporaries understood why compass needles behaved as they did: attraction, repulsion, variation, dip, bipolarity, and the discovery of latitude were recognized empirically, but poorly understood. . The next magnetic movement that Gilbert discussed was declination, the variation from the horizontal.
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