Nader Shah saved Persia from disintegration through his military prowess and intelligent generalship. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 2), IRAN ii. Although the Safavids lost some territory to the Ottomans, it was the psychological effect of the disaster that counted most. He proved a cruel and bloodthirsty king with a warped personality, killing and blinding so many Safavid princes during his reign of less than a year that few with Safavid blood in them remained unharmed. The Imams names are located on different places on margin, as well. ), šah Irana i drugi vladar iz safavidske dinastije. For 29 years he ruled with justice and made the comfort of his subjects the aim of his reign; he did not even call himself shah, but only the Deputy of the People (Wakil al-raʿāyā). Nader distinguished himself by defeating Malek Maḥmud of Sistān, a descendant of the Saffarids, who had raided Khorasan. Thomas Michael (editor), Tracy L. Schmidt (editor); 2016. IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic Times, IRAN ii. Too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of the Qizilbash. Many of these gholams rose to high ranks owing to their intelligence and capability, and some became governors and army leaders. This and a number of other measures, notably the reduction of the number of Qezel-bāš provincial governors and the bestowing of high ranks on a fairly large number of Caucasians, helped to reduce the power of the Qezelbāš and concentrate it in the hands of the shah. The Qezelbāš factionalism and inter-tribal conflicts were at their height. Pour gérer votre collection, veuillez vous connecter ou si ce n'est pas déjà fait, inscrivez-vous. While relaxing some of the religious exigencies, he was well aware of his position as the “Perfect Man” and the reverence owed him as the head of the Safavid Order. He managed in the course of his 52 years of reign to hold the Safavid domain together, defending it against continuous threats and invasions by the Ottomans from the west and the Uzbeks from the northeast. Hedemanded an enormous tribute, and after the bloody massacre of the inhabitants of Delhi, which he ordered when two of his soldiers were killed by an Indian mob, he returned to Khorasan. Anattempt on his life, in which he came to believe that his son and heir apparent, Reżā-qoli Mirzā, was involved, caused him to order his blinding. IRANIAN HISTORY (4) Index of Proper Names, IRAN ii. Lettering: The fact that Mirzā Šāh-Ḥosayn was assassinated in April 1523 by a group of Qezelbāš points to the endemic discord and conflict between the Qezelbāš and the Persians—a situation which continued under Shah Tahmasb (Ṭahmāsb) and even later in the Safavid period in spite of severe measures that Shah Abbas I (ʿAbbās) took to centralize power in the Shah’s hands and diminish the power of the Qezelbāš. Shah Abbas, regarding this as an intrusion on Persian soil, eventually managed, with some naval help from the British East India Company, to drive out the Portuguese. He was murdered in 1747 by a group of Afšār and Qajar men who had learned that he was intent on destroying them. With no capable successor to hold his empire, the Afsharid realm quickly disintegrated. When Tahmasb II solicited his aid in order to oust the Afghans, Nader agreed and in a series of battles defeated Ašraf, who, fleeing from him, was killed in Baluchistan. Shah Abbas was both an able general and a capable statesman. The first helped the second and gave the country a distinctive character and identity against the Sunnite Ottomans in the west and the Sunnite Shaybanids in the northeast, and made it possible for Persia to withstand repeated Ottoman invasions. Their rule, however, was short. Šāh-Ḥosayn’s power increased to the point that he was able to dislodge the all-powerful Durmiš Khan Šāmlu and send him away from the court to the governorship of Herat (Savory, p. 48).
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