# source and load impedance

There seems to be a lot of confusion about the term output impedance as it is often taken to mean, and often meant to mean, the source impedance of the equipment. The maximum power theorem says that maximum power is transferred from source to load when the load resistance equals the source resistance and the load reactance equals the negative of the source reactance. Output impedance is a term commonly used by manufacturers in the specification of the output circuit in electronic equipment such as amplifiers and transmitters. The amplifier stage is often depicted using the analogy of figure 1, of an AC generator in series with its own plate or collector resistance, connected to the load. Yes, but when you see from the source, it just doesn't see the 50ohm impedance of the transmission line alone, right? This old post might answer your question: Thank you @ThePhoton , the links helped me. Impedance discontinuities Is it okay to send a thank-you-for-teaching to a professor who taught a course a few semesters ago? At the time T0 when the edge of the wave first impinges upon the left hand edge of the transmission line, that's all the signal sees - the transmission line. We have shown that source resistance in an amplifier can be quite different from the load resistance used, but often there is a need to change it so that Rs equals the load resistance or some other desired value. The input impedance of an electrical network is the measure of the opposition to current (impedance), both static (resistance) and dynamic (reactance), into the load network that is external to the electrical source. Input/Output Impedance of DC/DC converters and Impedance matching. For a base current of 60 microamps, Rc is derived as 2,174 ohms. So here is a good reason for the source impedance to be matched to the transmission line impedance. For that reason many instrument cables have a conductive coating on the outside of the insulation dielectric which attenuates the triboelectric voltages. For class A triode power amplifiers, the load resistance usually works out to be around two to three times the plate resistance. The perfect voltage source is equivalent to the no load or open circuit. In triode power amplifiers, the source resistance is lower than the load resistance. Let's say the 50 Ω source drives a 50 V step into a 50 Ω resistive load. The DC current input to the stage looks like a full wave rectified signal and hence the average current is well known as 0.636 of the peak value so that DC input power is calculated as 0.636Ic.Vcc. vi = incident voltage The line itself has (ideally) no resistance. Maximum power output is calculated from the RMS values as follows: I am designing a matching network between Known source impedance(50ohm) and known load Impedance(2Mega ohm). The example below shows one of the most common mismatch errors encountered in such measurements. It is equal to: En savoir plus sur notre dÃ©claration de confidentialitÃ© et notre politique en matiÃ¨re de cookies. Impedance Matching between Source and Load. Once again, we see that our collector resistance or source resistance does not enter the calculation and the fact that source resistance is higher than load resistance is of no consequence to the power efficiency and maximum power output. where μ = amplification factor. (2√2) When they reach the far end, they find a 50 Ω load. accuracy that can be achieved across a mismatched junction. Referring back to the derivation of plate resistance, we see that at 50,000 ohms, the plate resistance is ten times the load resistance. z0 = characteristic impedance. Or, is there something that I am missing? Selectable termination impedances are provided at the digitizer inputs to accommodate the most (2) In tetrode and pentode power amplifiers and in transistor power amplifiers, the source resistance is normally much higher than the load resistance. The presence of impedance discontinuities or mismatches degrades the amplitude and phase accuracy, Should I mention a discovery was made by mistake? of smaller Helped me clear my doubts. This condition is not true. By applying a controlled amount of voltage or current feedback (or a combination of both), the source resistance can be modified to a selected desired value. Observe the difference in slope between the tetrode and triode curves and the resultant much higher plate resistance of the tetrode than that of the triode. What they usually mean is that this is the load impedance into which the equipment is designed to operate. If we commence with RL greater than Rs, more power will be dissipated in RL than in Rs. In the discussion which follows, the word resistance will sometimes be substituted for impedance in the explanations which are given. The Overflow #45: What we call CI/CD is actually only CI. Can I hover my finger over a chess piece without touching it in a major chess tournament? The accuracy with which power can be measured is limited by mismatch error.      = (4Vcc.Icc)/8 resistance and load resistance in valve and transistor power amplifiers. In this case, there is no reflected signal to be absorbed or re-reflected and as far as standing waves are concerned, it does not matter one iota what source impedance is seen in the transmitter With this considered, perhaps the source impedance of the transmitter is not so important after all. (4) The fact that the transmitter source resistance is higher than the load resistance, as in the pentode, tetrode and transistor, does not limit power transfer efficiency or maximum power output as would occur if the high source resistance were inherent in a simple generator. The transistor efficiency closely approaches these values, limited essentially by the bends in the curves at low collector voltage and which are clearly seen in figures 4 and 7. The AC is separated from the summed result by capacitive or transformer coupling. Class B operation is discussed with reference to the transistor curves of figure 12. A source of electric power such as a generator, amplifier or radio transmitter has a source impedance which is equivalent to an electrical resistance in series with a reactance. Can I go to Japan, where I was born? matching L-pad, When we apply it to the tetrode or pentode valve or the transistor amplifier, each of which have high AC source resistance compared to the load resistance used, we see a condition in which most of the power generated appears to be lost within the source resistance of the amplifier. Vous devez avoir souscrit un contrat de service. But according to maximum power transfer theorem, we need the source impedance to be equal to the load impedance for maximum power transfer. On the other hand, if there is a mismatch here, the reflected signals will be further reflected back down the line to aggravate the standing wave condition. To demonstrate the arguments which will be submitted, the amplifiers will be considered to operate essentially in Class A as this class of operation is more straightforward to analyse than classes which utilise plate or collector current flow over less than the full AC cycle.    = (Vcc.Icc)/2. So, how can we achieve maximum power transfer here? For our amplifier, the circuit analogy of figure 1 cannot be used to calculate efficiency of the stage. Reflections occur on a transmission line if the line is not terminated in a resistance equal to its characteristic impedance, or if an impedance discontinuity occurs along the path of the line. Hi friends! Nous sommes lÃ  pour vous aider Ã  bien dÃ©marrer. That continues until both voltage and current (speeding towards the load) reach the load end and, if the load has a resistance of \\$Z_0\\$, then all is well. On the curves of figures 2 and 3, it is derived by taking the ratio of a change in Ib to a change in Eb for a constant Ec. When broadband signals are carried on transmission lines of any significant length, care must be taken Maximum power output is thus achieved with a load line which is drawn from a point at Vcc and Ic = 0 to just within the limits of the power dissipation curve. If anyones kindly share your knowledge. Our main concern is that the specified load impedance (usually 50 ohms resistive) is reflected across the transmitter output from the transmission line load. Vous pouvez demander une rÃ©paration, programmer lâÃ©talonnage ou obtenir une assistance technique. There has been no problem in meeting both the voltage and current from the line, they are in the correct ratio, so all the boundary conditions are met and no reflection is generated. Reactance is impedance arising from the storage of electrical energy in an electric or magnetic field and does not consume energy. If the load resistance is reduced so that we get curve B in figure 9, the voltage swing is limited to that shown by XX. In precision test equipment, the design is such that the source impedance is made equal to the load impedance into which it is meant to operate. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. that the transmission medium is matched to its terminations. And yes indeed, but let us assume that the transmission line is long and it said to have a 50 Ohm resistance, in that case, what would happen? It doesn't know there's a load at the far end so the current taken is defined by the cable or transmission line. layout techniques It is also used to modify the amplifier source resistance. For example, in a moving coil loudspeaker there is a need for heavy damping to prevent the speaker cone resonating when a transient is delivered. Suppose if the transmission line has a characteristic impedance of 50Ohms, wont voltage division happen between the source & Line and between line & load? In the basic crude basic block diagram, we have a source, transmission line and load, all having an impedance of 50Ohms. The output impedance of an electrical network is the measure of the opposition to current flow, both static and dynamic, into the load network being connected that is internal to the electrical source. If Jesus is the "true" vine (anti-type), who or what is the "untrue" vine (type)? Would the rest of the UK lose anything more than honor if Scotland exits the UK? The plate resistance (Rp), at a given grid voltage (Ec), is the reciprocal of the slope of the plate current (Ib) versus plate voltage (Eb) curve. Although it was not the specific aim, discussion has demonstrated some of the useful applications of amplifier static characteristic curves and load lines. Finally, figure 7 shows a load line drawn for the transistor. How is this practice viewed? What is the voltage drop across the 10ohm resistor? Source resistance of an amplifier is equal to the AC plate resistance (or collector resistance in the case of the transistor) divided by the impedance ratio of the output coupling circuit. Knowledge of source and load impedances is fundamental. G = generator reflection coefficient. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Making use of figure 1, the generator voltage is equal to the AC input voltage multiplied by the amplification factor. The most common misconception being that knowing a circuits resistance is all that's required to calculate how much current will flow. The source and load impedances should equal the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, as this minimizes signal reflections. maximum power transfer theorem tells us to measure source impedance as conjugate of load impedance for maximum power transfer. But according to maximum power transfer theorem, we need the source impedance to be equal to the load impedance for maximum power transfer. Maximum current swing on load line A is limited to the point where the load line intersects minimum collector voltage on the Ic versus Vce curves. Let us now consider the source impedance of the transmitter feeding the transmission line. In the valve or transistor amplifier, the problem is not quite the same and this will be discussed further on. A 50 Ω line, terminated in a 50 Ω resistor, 'looks like' a 50 Ω load to the source driving it. zt = termination impedance How can the source impedance of an energy source be made zero? So, voltage division won't happen? A 50 Ω line or load both define a ratio of voltage to current. (admittance). equal the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, as this minimizes signal reflections. rev 2020.10.30.37923, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us.