Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence, International Planned Parenthood Federation, "Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh", "Shahbag protesters versus the Butcher of Mirpur", "Bangladesh Islamist given last-minute stay of execution", "Quader Molla hangs, finally, for war crimes", "Letter to the Bangladesh Prime Minister regarding the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act", "Bangladesh: Stop Harassment of Defense at War Tribunal", "Genocide in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh", "Bangla movie Meherjan to be screened today", "Bangladesh Jamaat leader sentenced to death", "Rape victims or war heroes: war women in Bangladesh", "The Bangladesh genocide: The plight of women", "Bangladesh war crimes tribunal sentences Jamaat-e-Islami member to death", "Bangladesh's watershed war crimes moment", "Bangladesh War's Toll on Women Still Undiscussed", "Bangladesh Islamist Ghulam Azam found guilty of war crimes", "Dead Reckoning: Disappearing stories and evidence", Report from the International Commission of Jurists, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's speech of 7 March, Military plans of the Bangladesh Liberation War, Pakistan Army order of battle, December 1971, Mitro Bahini Order of Battle December 1971, 2015 Expulsion of Pakistani diplomats from Dhaka, Movement demanding trial of war criminals (Bangladesh), International Crimes Tribunal (Bangladesh), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rape_during_the_Bangladesh_Liberation_War&oldid=981964645, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from June 2019, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from June 2019, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 October 2020, at 12:26. It is, moreover, the subject of shocking degrees of denial among partisan polemicists and manipulative historians. Nobody could credit that it really happened! , The International Crimes (Tribunals) Act of 1973 was promulgated to prosecute any persons, irrespective of nationality, who were accused of committing crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, war crimes, "violations of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid out in the Geneva Conventions of 1949" and "any other crimes under international law". He offered his resignation, which Gandhi declined. , Orunodoyer Ognishakhi (Pledge to a New Dawn), the first film about the war, was screened in 1972 on the first Bangladeshi Independence Day celebration.  A 1952 protest in Dhaka, the capital of East Pakistan, was forcibly broken up, resulting in the deaths of several protesters. All 195 of them were released in April 1974 following the tripartite Delhi Agreement between Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, and repatriated to Pakistan, in return for Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh. In 2009, almost 40 years after the events of 1971, a report published by the War Crimes Fact Finding Committee of Bangladesh accused 1,597 people of war crimes, including rape. A mock people's court was formed which on 26 March 1992, found Ghulam Azam guilty in a trial that was criticised widely and sentenced him to death. , Following the conflict the rape victims were seen as a symbol of "social pollution" and shame. , Rudolph Rummel wrote "In 1971, the self-appointed president of Pakistan and commander-in-chief of the army General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan and his top generals prepared a careful and systematic military, economic, and political operation against East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).  A report from the International Commission of Jurists said, "Whatever the precise numbers, the teams of American and British surgeons carrying out abortions and the widespread government efforts to persuade people to accept these girls into the community, testify to the scale on which raping occurred". The complete chronology of events as reported to the Nixon administration can be found on the Department of State website.  The narratives of the survivors in this work is heavily critical of post-war Bangladeshi society's failure to support the victims of rape. , The deputy leader of Jamaat-e-Islami, Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, the first person to face charges related to the conflict, was indicted by the ICT on twenty counts of war crimes, which included murder, rape and arson. Sen. Kennedy wrote, "Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). In one such incident, notable filmmaker Jahir Raihan was killed on 30 January 1972 in Mirpur allegedly by the armed Beharis. "Our history of the past 72 years is tragic. , Anthony Mascarenhas published a newspaper article titled 'Genocide in June 1971' in which he also wrote about violence perpetrated by Bengalis against Biharis.  The total effect of mass sexual violence against Hindu women demonstrated the existence of the genocidal actus reas. They produced a list of officers who were in positions of command at the time, or were connected to the Inter-Services Screening Committee. Earlier, in 1949, other activists had founded the Awami League as an alternative to the ruling Muslim League in West Pakistan. , On 18 February 1972 the state formed the Bangladesh Women's Rehabilitation Board, which was tasked with helping the victims of rape and to help with the adoption programme.  President Yahya Khan, encouraged by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, banned the Awami League and declared martial law.  Hitchens not only claims that the term genocide is appropriate to describe the results of the struggle, but also points to the efforts of Henry Kissinger in undermining others who condemned the then ongoing atrocities as being a genocide. The term has since become a pejorative akin to the western term "Judas".  Dr. Geoffrey Davis, an Australian doctor and abortion specialist who worked for the programme, estimated that there had been about 5,000 cases of self-induced abortions. 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