If the joint is properly prepared, there will be a good bond between the new mortar and the adjacent surfaces. Rising damp can significantly affect the integrity and value of a property and superficial treatments such as repainting, coating, or cleaning the surface won't make it go away. sativus PlantCyc DAMP: Dianthus caryophyllus PlantCyc DAMP: Dioscorea rotundata PlantCyc DAMP… Staining the new mortar to achieve a better color match is generally not recommended, but it may be appropriate in some instances. "Field Notes on Repointing." Phillips, Morgan W. "Brief Notes on the Subjects of Analyzing Paints and Mortars and the Recording of Moulding Profiles: The Trouble with Paint and Mortar Analysis." Divinylbenzene-styrenesulfonic acid copolymer. 14 Exterior Additions If power tools are to be permitted, the contractor should establish a quality control program to account for worker fatigue and similar variables. 4 Roofing heat recovery units and whole house units. This treatment will help avoid a joint which is visually wider than the actual joint; it also will avoid creation of a large, thin featheredge which is easily damaged, thus admitting water. It may liberate additional salts, which, in turn, can lead to more efflorescence. Edinburgh: Historic Scotland, 1995. While a particular method might be able to accurately determine the original proportions of a lime-cement-sand mortar prepared from modern materials, the usefulness of that method for evaluating historic mortars is questionable unless it has been tested against mortars prepared from materials more commonly used in the past. Photo: John P. Speweik. Technology and Conservation. This represents the 1:3 binder to sand ratios often seen in mortar specifications. Usually, automatic tools most successfully remove old mortar without damaging the masonry units when they are used in combination with hand tools in preparation for repointing. Studies in Conservation. 4-(2,2-Diphenylacetoxy)-1,1-dimethylpiperidinium, C[N+]1(CCC(CC1)OC(=O)C(c2ccccc2)c3ccccc3)C The test panel should determine the acceptability of power tools. As a result, it has not been durable. A mortar that performs well fills all these small voids with binder (cement/lime combination or mix) in a balanced manner. Methods for analyzing mortars can be divided into two broad categories: wet chemical and instrumental. They are not very effective with high lime mortars and may introduce salts, which may cause efflorescence later. The entire masonry crew must be willing and able to perform the work in conformance with the specifications, even when the specifications may not be in conformance with standard practice. These materials can be combined in varying proportions to create a mortar with the desired performance and durability. Red pigments, sometimes in the form of brick dust, as well as brown, and black pigments were commonly used. 7F. This process involves the application of a thin coat of cement-based grout to the mortar joints and the mortar/brick interface. There is a tendency to think of historic mortars as having white binders, but grey portland cement was available by the last quarter of the 19th century, and traditional limes were also sometimes grey. The consultant must also be prepared to spend more time in project inspections than is customary in modern construction. Safety Manager Software. But it was not in common use throughout the country until the early 20th century. 2 (Summer 1980), pp. Up until about the mid-19th century, lime or quicklime (sometimes called lump lime) was delivered to construction sites, where it had to be slaked, or combined with water. 8 (August 1996), pp. Thus, the mortar found in masonry structures built between 1871 and 1930 can range from pure lime and sand mixes to a wide variety of lime, portland cement, and sand combinations. Our recommended course of action is to use damp-proofing course technologies that protect against rising damp without the need to damage your home or building. The drawback of most mortar analysis methods is that mortar samples of known composition have not been analyzed in order to evaluate the method. Deoxyadenosine monophosphate is abbreviated dAMP. New construction "bloom" or efflorescence occasionally appears within the first few months of repointing and usually disappears through the normal process of weathering. Specifying the appropriate ASTM mortar by proportion of ingredients, will ensure the desired physical properties. Website by Andrew Painter Design. This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. 77-89. If repointing work is carefully executed, there will be little need for cleaning other than to remove the small amount of mortar from the edge of the joint following tooling. Building managers also must recognize the difficulties that a repointing project can create.The process is time consuming, and scaffolding may need to remain in place for an extended period of time. Rising damp is prevented in modern buildings through the use of a damp-proof course a waterproof plastic membrane that goes along the mortar line of a building. Mortar samples should be chosen carefully, and picked from a variety of locations on the building to find unweathered mortar, if possible. Replacement units should blend in with the full range of masonry units rather than a single brick or stone. Typical signs of rising damp rather than other damp problems are a ‘tide line’ of yellowish or brownish staining or blown plaster in the lower area of your wall above your skirting board. Proper timing of the tooling is important for uniform color and appearance. In this situation it is important to ensure that the specifications stipulate that masons must have a minimum of five years' experience with repointing historic masonry buildings to be eligible to bid on the project. File:DAMP chemical structure.png; File usage on other wikis. A strong mortar is still more permeable than hard, dense stone. Some late-19th and early-20th century buildings, for example, have horizontal joints that were raked back while the vertical joints were finished flush and stained to match the bricks, thus creating the illusion of horizontal bands. Portland cement was first manufactured in the United States in 1871, although it was imported before this date. Using power saws on walls with thin joints, such as most brick walls, almost always will result in damage to the masonry units by breaking the edges and by overcutting on the head, or vertical joints. Unskilled repointing has negatively impacted the character of this late-19th century building. Confined Space 8. Springfield, IL: Division of Preservation Services, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, 1989. (Unlike lime, portland cement will harden regardless of weather conditions and does not require wetting and drying cycles.) For this reason, they generally are not recommended for use on historic masonry buildings. Note that each type of work—brick repointing, stone repointing, or similar items—will have its own unit price. If mixed with higher amounts of portland cement, a harder mortar is obtained. How rising damp can rise up from the ground and on up into your walls. The remaining water should then be added in small portions until a mortar of the desired consistency is reached. The three key characteristics of sand are: particle shape, gradation and void ratios. Incident Reports 4. 35 Architectural Investigation Some earlier mortars are not as uniformly textured and may contain lumps of partially burned lime or "dirty lime", shell (which often provided a source of lime, particularly in coastal areas), natural cements, pieces of clay, lampblack or other pigments, or even animal hair. Other treatments to overcome these differences, including cleaning the non-repointed areas or staining the new mortar, should be carefully tested prior to implementation. 6, No. Thus, 30 per cent binder by volume generally should be used, unless the historic mortar had a different binder: aggregate ratio. A simple in situ comparison will help determine the hardness and condition of the mortar and the masonry units. Sand must be added in a damp, loose condition to avoid over sanding. The following other wikis use this file: Usage on en.wikipedia.org Nucleotide; Metadata. 41 Seismic Rehabilitation endobj Examine the powdered portion—the lime and/or cement matrix of the mortar. Moderately durable:limestone, durable stone, molded brick, The new mortar must match the historic mortar in. Old mortar should be removed to a minimum depth of 2 to 2-1/2 times the width of the joint to ensure an adequate bond and to prevent mortar "popouts."
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